Intelligent robot is called intelligent robot because it has a well-developed “brain”. What works in the brain is the central processing unit, which is directly related to the person who operates it. Most importantly, such a computer can perform actions arranged according to purpose. Because of this, we say that this kind of robot talent is a real robot, although their appearance may be different.
We understand the so-called intelligent robot in a broad sense. It gives people the deepest impression that it is a unique “living creature” for self-control. In fact, the main organs of this self-control “living creature” are not as subtle and complex as real people.
Intelligent robots have a variety of internal and external information sensors, such as vision, hearing, touch and smell. In addition to receptors, it also has effectors as a means of acting on the surrounding environment. These are muscles, or self-aligning motors, which move hands, feet, long noses, tentacles, etc. Therefore, intelligent robot should have at least three elements: sensory element, reaction element and thinking element.
We call this kind of robot automatic control robot in order to distinguish it from the robot mentioned earlier. It is the result of cybernetics, which advocates the fact that life and non life purposeful behavior are consistent in many aspects. As an intelligent robot maker said, robots are functional descriptions of a system. In the past, such systems could only be obtained from the growth of life cells. They have become something we can make ourselves.
Intelligent robot can understand human language, talk with the operator with human language, and form a detailed model of the external environment – the actual situation in its own “consciousness”. It can analyze the situation, adjust its actions to meet all the requirements put forward by the operator, formulate the desired actions, and complete these actions under the condition of insufficient information and rapid changes in the environment. Of course, as like as two peas in human mind, it is impossible to do so. However, there are still attempts to build some kind of “micro world” that computers can understand.
It can be divided into general robot and intelligent robot.
General robot refers to a robot that has no intelligence and only general programming ability and operation function.
There is no unified definition of intelligent robot in the world. Most experts believe that intelligent robots should have at least the following three elements: first, sensory elements, which are used to understand the state of the surrounding environment; The second is movement elements, which make reactive actions to the outside world; The third is to think about the elements. According to the information obtained from the sensory elements, think about what kind of action to adopt. Sensory elements include non-contact sensors that can sense vision, proximity and distance, and contact sensors that can sense force, pressure and touch. These elements are essentially equivalent to human eyes, nose, ears and other five senses. Their functions can be realized by electromechanical components such as camera, image sensor, ultrasonic transmitter, laser, conductive rubber, piezoelectric components, pneumatic components, travel switch and so on. For the moving elements, the intelligent robot needs a trackless mobile mechanism to adapt to different geographical environments such as flat ground, steps, walls, stairs, ramps and so on. Their functions can be completed with the help of mobile mechanisms such as wheels, tracks, feet, suction cups and air cushions. In the process of movement, the mobile mechanism should be controlled in real time. This control should not only include position control, but also strength control, position and strength mixed control, expansion rate control and so on. The thinking element of intelligent robot is the key of the three elements, and it is also a necessary element for people to give robots. Thinking elements include intellectual activities such as judgment, logical analysis and understanding. These intellectual activities are essentially an information processing process, and the computer is the main means to complete this processing process. Intelligent robots can be divided into three types according to their intelligence:
Also known as external controlled robot. There is no intelligent unit on the body of the robot, only the actuator and sensing mechanism. It has the ability to process sensing information and realize control and operation by using sensing information (including vision, hearing, touch, proximity, force, infrared, ultrasound and laser). It is controlled by an external computer, which has an intelligent processing unit to process various information collected by the controlled robot and various attitude and trajectory information of the robot itself, and then issue control commands to command the action of the robot. The robots used in the small group competition of the robot world cup belong to this type.
The robot carries out man-machine dialogue with the operator or programmer through the computer system to realize the control and operation of the robot. Although it has some processing and decision-making functions, and can independently realize some functions such as trajectory planning and simple obstacle avoidance, it is also controlled by the outside.
After the design and manufacture, the robot can automatically complete various anthropomorphic tasks in various environments without human intervention. The ontology of autonomous robot has modules such as perception, processing, decision-making and execution. It can act and deal with problems independently like an autonomous person. The robots used in the medium-sized group competition of the robot world cup belong to this type. The most important characteristic of fully autonomous mobile robot is its autonomy and adaptability. Autonomy means that it can perform certain tasks completely independently in a certain environment without relying on any external control. Adaptability means that it can recognize and measure the surrounding objects in real time, adjust its own parameters, adjust action strategies and deal with emergencies according to the changes of the environment. Interactivity is also an important feature of autonomous robots. Robots can communicate information with people, with the external environment and with other robots. Because fully autonomous mobile robot involves many aspects of research, such as driver control, sensor data fusion, image processing, pattern recognition, neural network and so on, it can comprehensively reflect a country’s level in manufacturing and artificial intelligence. Therefore, many countries attach great importance to the research of fully autonomous mobile robot.
The research of intelligent robot began in the early 1960s. After decades of development, the intelligent robot based on sensory control (also known as the second generation robot) has reached the practical application stage. The intelligent robot based on knowledge control (also known as autonomous robot or the next generation robot) has also made great progress, and a variety of prototypes have been developed.