Internet of things communication: Narrowband Internet of things (NB IOT) is one of several technologies that are expected to expand the market for low-power, connected devices and sensors. Such devices provide new application opportunities. They are related to long service life, small data payload and infrequent communication. With the innovative technologies related to 5g interconnection of all things and the new vision for 6G, the scale of market opportunities will be further expanded.
However, the size problems associated with processing power, energy consumption and the traffic exchanged by these devices over mobile networks have an opposite dimension. In each case, the objective is to minimize these measures. For example, the reduction of processing capacity leads to the reduction of equipment cost. This simplifies the adoption of paths because connecting devices is now more affordable. Due to economies of scale, standardization can amplify this trend.
In other measures, low energy consumption and low traffic intensity are conducive to operating costs. Lower data transmission and network signaling power can also reduce the impact on network resources that must be shared with many other users. In general, low energy consumption is also conducive to sustainability.
Optimization of minimum sensor
In the case of minimal sensor applications, design and engineering choices will have a significant impact on energy consumption and sustainability. When the sensor and the application form a communication link, there are several ways to optimize the boot process. This involves managing applications, processing registration functions, and setting up data structures for operational use. The communication and coding impact on restricted devices can be reduced by simply transmitting readings.
Another optimization that can improve energy use is the choice of content serialization format. For example, at one end of the spectrum, sensor readings can be transmitted in XML format and complex string information needs to be parsed for application processing. The other end involves using JSON and CBOR formats. In the comparative test, transmitting a single reading from the humidity sensor indicates that it is possible to reduce the payload by 5 times. Smaller JSON and even smaller CBOR format can also help reduce the computational resources and energy consumption involved in serialization and deserialization tasks
Put the device to sleep
Another set of ways to improve energy performance and extend the service life of battery powered remote devices uses sleep mode technology. This depends on a pre scheduled sleep schedule so that the device polls its communication network only when it is ready to send readings.
The 3GPP standard series specifies energy saving mode (PSM), which allows the device to avoid paging network and sleep for up to 413 days. The main disadvantage is that the network cannot access the device during this period.
Long term innovation focuses on zero energy consumption technology. These can reduce power consumption by 100 to 1000 times, paving the way for the realization of 1 trillion mobile and connected things.