Introduction and development history of artificial intelligence

liu, tempo Date: 2021-08-27 09:18:32
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A branch of computer science


Artificial intelligence, abbreviated as AI. Also known as intelligent machinery and machine intelligence, it refers to the intelligence shown by machines made by people. Generally, artificial intelligence refers to the technology of presenting human intelligence through ordinary computer programs. The term also points out whether such an intelligent system can be realized and how to realize it. The definition field of artificial intelligence in general textbooks is “research and design of intelligent agent”. Intelligent agent refers to a system that can observe the surrounding environment and take actions to achieve goals. John McCarthy defined it in 1955 as “the science and engineering of manufacturing intelligent machines”. Andreas Kaplan and Michael haenlein define AI as “the ability of the system to correctly interpret external data, learn from these data, and use these knowledge to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation”. The research of artificial intelligence is highly technical and professional. Each branch field is in-depth and different, so it covers a wide range.


The core problems of AI include the ability to construct reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception, moving objects, using tools and manipulating machines that are similar to or even superior to human beings. At present, a large number of tools have applied artificial intelligence, including search, mathematical optimization and logical deduction. Algorithms based on bionics, cognitive psychology, probability theory and economics are also being explored step by step. Thinking comes from the brain, and thinking controls behavior. Behavior needs will to be realized, and thinking is the sorting of all data collection, which is equivalent to a database. Therefore, artificial intelligence will eventually evolve into a machine to replace human beings.


Proposed in: 1956


Proposed at: Dartmouth Society


Name source: works of Hugo de Garris


artificial intelligence


Artificial intelligence robot


The definition of artificial intelligence can be divided into two parts, namely “artificial” and “intelligence”“ “Artificial” is easy to understand and not controversial. Sometimes we have to consider what can be made by human beings, or whether people’s own intelligence is high enough to create artificial intelligence, and so on. But generally speaking, “artificial system” is an artificial system in the usual sense.


There are many questions about what is “intelligence”. This involves others such as consciousness, self, mind (including unconsciousness)_ Mind) and so on. It is generally accepted that the only intelligence that people understand is their own intelligence. However, our understanding of our own intelligence is very limited, and our understanding of the necessary elements of adult intelligence is also limited, so it is difficult to define what is “artificial” intelligence. Therefore, the research of artificial intelligence often involves the research of human intelligence itself. Other intelligence about animals or other man-made systems is also generally regarded as a research topic related to artificial intelligence.


Artificial intelligence has been paid more and more attention in the field of computer. It has been applied in robot, economic and political decision-making, control system and simulation system.


Professor Nelson of the famous artificial intelligence research center of Stanford University in the United States defined artificial intelligence as: “artificial intelligence is a discipline about knowledge – the science of how to express knowledge and how to obtain and use knowledge.” Another professor Winston of the Massachusetts Institute of technology in the United States said: “artificial intelligence is to study how to make computers do intelligent work that only talents could do in the past.” These statements reflect the basic idea and content of artificial intelligence. That is, artificial intelligence is to study the law of human intelligent activities, construct an artificial system with certain intelligence, and study how to let the computer complete the work that needed human intelligence in the past, that is, to study the basic theory, method and technology of how to use computer software and hardware to simulate some human intelligent behavior.


Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science. Since the 1970s, it has been known as one of the three cutting-edge technologies in the world (space technology, energy technology and artificial intelligence). It is also considered to be one of the three cutting-edge technologies (genetic engineering, nanoscience and artificial intelligence) in the 21st century. This is because it has achieved rapid development in recent 30 years, has been widely used in many subject fields, and has achieved fruitful results. Artificial intelligence has gradually become an independent branch, and has become a system in theory and practice.


Artificial intelligence is a subject that studies the computer to simulate some human thinking processes and intelligent behaviors (such as learning, reasoning, thinking, planning, etc.), mainly including the principle of computer realizing intelligence, manufacturing computers similar to human brain intelligence, so that computers can realize higher-level applications. Artificial intelligence will involve computer science, psychology, philosophy and linguistics. It can be said that almost all disciplines of natural science and social science have far exceeded the scope of computer science. The relationship between artificial intelligence and thinking science is the relationship between practice and theory. Artificial intelligence is at the technical application level of thinking science and an application branch of it. From the perspective of thinking, artificial intelligence is not limited to logical thinking. Only by considering image thinking and inspiration thinking can we promote the breakthrough development of artificial intelligence. Mathematics is often regarded as the basic science of many disciplines. Mathematics also enters the field of language and thinking. The discipline of artificial intelligence must also borrow mathematical tools. Mathematics not only plays a role in the scope of standard logic and fuzzy mathematics, When mathematics enters the discipline of artificial intelligence, they will promote each other and develop faster.


Development History


The legend of artificial intelligence can be traced back to ancient Egypt, but with the development of electronic computers since 1941, technology can finally create machine intelligence. The term “artificial intelligence” was first put forward at Dartmouth society in 1956. Since then, researchers have developed many theories and principles, and the concept of artificial intelligence has been expanded, In its short history, the development of artificial intelligence is slower than expected, but it has been moving forward. Since its emergence 40 years ago, many AI programs have appeared, and they also affect the development of other technologies.

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