(1) Knowledge representation
The purpose of artificial intelligence research is to establish a system that can simulate human intelligent behavior, but knowledge is the basis of all intelligent behaviors, so we must first study knowledge representation methods. Only in this way can it be stored in the computer for use in solving real-world problems. Knowledge representation methods can be divided into two categories: symbolic representation (a method of combining various symbols with specific meanings to represent knowledge in various ways and sequences) and connection mechanism representation (using neural networks to represent knowledge).
(2) Machine perception
The so-called machine perception is to make the machine (computer) have a perception ability similar to that of human, among which machine vision and machine hearing are the main ones. Machine perception is the basic way for machines to obtain external information.
(3) Machine thinking
The so-called machine thinking refers to the purposeful processing of external information obtained through perception and various working information inside the machine.
(4) Machine learning
Machine learning is the study of how to make computers have learning capabilities similar to humans, so that they can automatically acquire knowledge through learning.
(5) Machine behavior
Machine behavior mainly refers to the expressive ability of the computer, that is, the ability to “speak”, “write”, and “draw”. For an intelligent robot, it should also have the functions of human limbs, that is, it can walk, retrieve objects, and operate.
At present, with the development of intelligent science and technology and the widespread application of computer network technology, artificial intelligence technology is applied to more and more fields. A few main areas are briefly introduced below:
(1) Automatic theorem proof
Automatic theorem proof is the first research field in artificial intelligence that has been successfully applied. At the same time, it has also played an important role in promoting the development of artificial intelligence. In fact, in addition to the proof of mathematical theorems, many non-mathematical problems such as medical diagnosis, information retrieval, and problem solving can be transformed into theorem proof problems.
Competitive intelligent activities such as chess, card game, and war are called game playing. The purpose of artificial intelligence research game is not to allow computers and people to play chess and card games, but to test whether certain artificial intelligence technologies can simulate human intelligence and promote artificial intelligence technology through the research of games. In-depth research.
(3) Mode identification
Pattern recognition is a discipline that studies object description and classification methods. The mode of analysis and recognition can be signal, image or ordinary data. A pattern is a quantitative or structural description of an object or some other entity of interest, and a pattern class refers to a collection of patterns with some common attributes.
Pattern recognition methods include statistical pattern recognition, structural pattern recognition, fuzzy pattern recognition, neural network pattern recognition and so on.
(4) Machine vision
Machine vision or computer vision is the use of machines instead of human eyes for measurement and judgment, and is an important aspect of pattern recognition research. Computer vision is usually divided into low-level vision and high-level vision.
(5) Natural language understanding
Natural language understanding is the study of how to make computers understand human natural language, which is a very important research field in artificial intelligence. It is the study of theories and methods that enable communication between humans and computers in natural language.
(6) Intelligent information retrieval
A database system is a computer system that stores a large amount of information. With the development of computer applications, the amount of stored information is increasing. Research on intelligent information retrieval systems has important theoretical significance and practical application value. The intelligent information retrieval system should have the following functions: it can understand natural language, have reasoning ability, and the system has certain common sense knowledge.
(7) Data mining and knowledge discovery
The knowledge discovery system uses various learning methods to automatically process a large amount of raw data in the database to extract inevitable and meaningful knowledge, thereby revealing the internal connections and essential laws behind these data, and realizing automatic knowledge acquisition . Knowledge discovery is the whole process of discovering knowledge from the database, and data mining is a specific and critical step of the whole process. The purpose of data mining is to find meaningful patterns from the database.
(8) Expert system
Expert system is an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and reasoning steps to solve difficult problems that only experts can solve. It is currently the most active and effective research field of artificial intelligence. It can be defined in this way that an expert system is a program system with a large amount of knowledge and experience in a specific field. It uses artificial intelligence technology to simulate the thinking process of human experts to solve problems to solve various problems in the field, and its level can reach or exceed that of human experts. s level.
(9) Automatic programming
Automatic programming is a technology that automatically converts programs described in natural language into executable programs, including program synthesis and program correctness verification.
A robot refers to a machine that can simulate human behavior. It can be divided into three generations: program-controlled robots (first generation), adaptive robots (second generation), and intelligent robots (third generation).
(11) Combinatorial optimization problem
Combinatorial optimization problems are generally NP complete problems. NP-complete problem refers to: using the best method currently known to solve the problem, the time required to solve the problem (called the complexity of the problem solving) increases exponentially with the increase of the problem size. The method of solving combinatorial optimization problems has been applied to production planning and scheduling, communication routing scheduling, transportation scheduling and so on.
(12) Artificial neural network
An artificial neural network is an artificial network composed of a large amount of simple processing and hopefully through a wide range of connections to simulate the structure and function of the brain’s nervous system.
(13) Distributed artificial intelligence and multi-agent
Distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) is the result of the combination of distributed computing and artificial intelligence. The research goal of distributed artificial intelligence is to establish a model that describes natural and social systems.
(14) Intelligent control
Intelligent control is to introduce artificial intelligence technology into the control field and establish an intelligent control system.
(15) Intelligent simulation
Intelligent simulation is the introduction of artificial intelligence technology into the field of simulation and the establishment of an intelligent simulation system.
(16) Intelligent CAD
Intelligent CAD is the introduction of artificial intelligence technology into the field of computer-aided design and the establishment of an intelligent CAD system.
(17) Smart CAI
Intelligent CAI is the introduction of artificial intelligence technology into the field of computer-assisted teaching, and the resume intelligent CAI system is ICAI.
(18) Intelligent management and intelligent decision-making
Intelligent management is to introduce artificial intelligence technology into the field of management, establish an intelligent management system, and study how to improve the intelligence level of computer management systems, as well as the design theories, methods and implementation methods of intelligent management systems. Intelligent decision-making is to introduce artificial intelligence technology into the decision-making process and establish an intelligent decision-making support system.
(19) Intelligent multimedia system
Intelligent multimedia is actually an organic combination of artificial intelligence and multimedia technology.
(20) Intelligent operating system
Intelligent operating system is the introduction of artificial intelligence technology into the computer operating system to qualitatively improve the performance and efficiency of the operating system.
(21) Intelligent computer system
Intelligent computer system is a new generation of computer system that people are developing, it will fully support the development of intelligent applications, and it has intelligence itself.
(22) Intelligent communication
Intelligent communication is the introduction of artificial intelligence technology into the communication field, the establishment of an intelligent communication system, and the realization of intelligence at all levels and links of the communication system.
(23) Intelligent network system
Intelligent network system is to introduce artificial intelligence technology into computer network system.
(24) Artificial life
Artificial life uses computers as research tools to simulate life phenomena in the natural world and generate simulation systems that express the behavior characteristics of natural life systems.