Which are the leading firms in AI?
With AI playing an increasingly major role in modern software and services, each major tech firm is battling to develop robust machine-learning technology for use in-house and to sell to the public via cloud services.
Each regularly makes headlines for breaking new ground in AI research, although it is probably Google with its DeepMind AI AlphaFold and AlphaGo systems that have probably made the biggest impact on the public awareness of AI.
Which AI services are available?
All of the major cloud platforms — Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform — provide access to GPU arrays for training and running machine-learning models, with Google also gearing up to let users use its Tensor Processing Units — custom chips whose design is optimized for training and running machine-learning models.
All of the necessary associated infrastructure and services are available from the big three, the cloud-based data stores, capable of holding the vast amount of data needed to train machine-learning models, services to transform data to prepare it for analysis, visualisation tools to display the results clearly, and software that simplifies the building of models.
These cloud platforms are even simplifying the creation of custom machine-learning models, with Google offering a service that automates the creation of AI models, called Cloud AutoML. This drag-and-drop service builds custom image-recognition models and requires the user to have no machine-learning expertise.
Cloud-based, machine-learning services are constantly evolving. Amazon now offers a host of AWS offerings designed to streamline the process of training up machine-learning models and recently launched Amazon SageMaker Clarify, a tool to help organizations root out biases and imbalances in training data that could lead to skewed predictions by the trained model.
For those firms that don’t want to build their own machine learning models but instead want to consume AI-powered, on-demand services, such as voice, vision, and language recognition, Microsoft Azure stands out for the breadth of services on offer, closely followed by Google Cloud Platform and then AWS. Meanwhile, IBM, alongside its more general on-demand offerings, is also attempting to sell sector-specific AI services aimed at everything from healthcare to retail, grouping these offerings together under its IBM Watson umbrella, and having invested $2bn in buying The Weather Channel to unlock a trove of data to augment its AI services.
Which of the major tech firms is winning the AI race?
Internally, each tech giant and others such as Facebook use AI to help drive myriad public services: serving search results, offering recommendations, recognizing people and things in photos, on-demand translation, spotting spam — the list is extensive.
But one of the most visible manifestations of this AI war has been the rise of virtual assistants, such as Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, the Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana.
Relying heavily on voice recognition and natural-language processing and needing an immense corpus to draw upon to answer queries, a huge amount of tech goes into developing these assistants.
But while Apple’s Siri may have come to prominence first, it is Google and Amazon whose assistants have since overtaken Apple in the AI space — Google Assistant with its ability to answer a wide range of queries and Amazon’s Alexa with the massive number of ‘Skills’ that third-party devs have created to add to its capabilities.
Over time, these assistants are gaining abilities that make them more responsive and better able to handle the types of questions people ask in regular conversations. For example, Google Assistant now offers a feature called Continued Conversation, where a user can ask follow-up questions to their initial query, such as ‘What’s the weather like today?’, followed by ‘What about tomorrow?’ and the system understands the follow-up question also relates to the weather.
These assistants and associated services can also handle far more than just speech, with the latest incarnation of the Google Lens able to translate text into images and allow you to search for clothes or furniture using photos.
Despite being built into Windows 10, Cortana has had a particularly rough time of late, with Amazon’s Alexa now available for free on Windows 10 PCs. At the same time, Microsoft revamped Cortana’s role in the operating system to focus more on productivity tasks, such as managing the user’s schedule, rather than more consumer-focused features found in other assistants, such as playing music.