The transformation of social relations is like the Internet. Robot technology is a social and economic transformative technology. Nowadays, human beings live in a rationally constructed society. The development of artificial intelligence technology has led to great changes in the social structure, and a series of social ethics problems caused by it have also become the focus of academic and industry research.
As Heidegger said, “the threat to human beings does not only come from technical machinery and devices that may have fatal effects. The real threat has touched human beings in the essence of human beings. The rule of Gestell threatens human beings, which may prevent human beings from entering a more primitive state of deconstruction, and therefore unable to experience a more primitive call for truth.”
1、 Alienated labor
Artificial intelligence has penetrated into all aspects of our life, flooded in various fields such as life, production, work and medical treatment, and brought great changes in social relations. The uncertainty of its technological development will inevitably bring new challenges to social ethics, which requires us to conduct in-depth discussion. The penetration of labor alienation into human value, industrial civilization has brought huge space for the external evolution of human physical fitness, and has brought great progress for human beings to conquer the world outside their physical fitness.
Artificial intelligence makes the “in vitro evolution of human intelligence” a reality, which will have a tearing impact on the structure of human society. Spielberg presents us with various types of social service robots in artificial intelligence. They perform their respective duties and engage in different types of work, including robot lovers who specially accompany human beings, robot nannies who take care of human life, and robot children who “love” with human parents.
Robots provide all-round services for human beings in various fields. Marx put forward the theory of “alienated labor” because in capitalist economic society, the labor paid by workers does not match the remuneration received. The relationship between capitalists and workers is called alienated labor by Marx, and the emergence of artificial intelligence intensifies the alienation of labor.
As shown in artificial intelligence, when the female robot nanny met David in the machine slaughterhouse, the first sentence she said was to ask David if she still needed a nanny at home. As long as robots are not destroyed by humans, they can do it permanently in their own posts, so that the so-called “capitalists” can do it once and for all.
When robots learn what humans can do, what else can humans do? Will artificial intelligence replace human beings on a large scale and cause widespread unemployment? This is an issue that the academic circles have been concerned about. While artificial intelligence replaces human work, the need for technology is constantly creating new labor needs, so as to provide more jobs. The two forces are changing.
In a word, artificial intelligence replaces human beings in easy or heavy work, which means that more and more basic labor is no longer needed. However, with the progress and maturity of artificial intelligence technology, the replacement of human beings by robots is not only reflected in the most basic physical work, but also reflected in mental work.
Although the film “artificial intelligence” depicts the future world, there are many scenes in which artificial intelligence replaces human labor in the current society, such as robot interview, robot manuscript writing, robot anchor, robot poetry writing and so on. These should have been the fruits of labor that only the human brain can create. Now robots can also create them, and the quality is not worse or even better than that created by humans.
With the rapid development of science and technology, machines are becoming more and more automatic, and the number of people needed will be less and less. Artificial intelligence is eliminating some “work” that only human beings can complete: doctors, journalists, anchors and even poets will be replaced by artificial intelligence. If this development continues, both blue-collar and white-collar jobs will gradually disappear, and working-class and middle-class families will be further reduced. At the same time, families are bound to suffer heavy losses due to increased spending.
2、 Social structure
The social value of human beings is realized through the most basic labor. Robots work in the posts where human beings should work, which weakens the social value of human beings. In the new society where human beings and machines coexist, from the perspective of social structure, artificial intelligence, as the brain of machines, plays a great role in the process of machine control.
In other words, the original “man machine” social structure will evolve into a “man intelligent machine machine” structure. With the gradual invasion and penetration of artificial intelligence technology into life, people’s role and status in social production have also changed, which directly leads to the reform of production relations. As Hubert Dreyfus said, “artificial intelligence has made great changes in our social relations.
Whether we live or work, we are dealing with machines. The social relationship between people established by work and cooperation will collapse, and the original social relationship between people will be replaced by the social relationship between people and machines “. Machines have become a part of our lives and even our bodies.
When robots become an important part of human relations, interaction, as a basic characteristic of modern communication technology, has become a necessary state of human social life. In the movie, there is a scene where Monica’s phone rings. David answers the phone and imitates the way Henry talks on the phone. Monica is very anxious here to ask David to call her, but David doesn’t seem to hear it. He ignores Monica’s words and continues to imitate.
This reflects the difficulty of communication and interaction between humans and robots, because the cognitive differences between humans and robots make it difficult for them to communicate. Interpersonal communication and discussion have a kind of interoperability, which can stimulate freedom. Moreover, real communication will promote the integration of the hearts of both sides of communication. However, even conscious robots do not seem to be as smooth and perfect as we think due to different cultural cognition.
The society shown in artificial intelligence is the structure of “man intelligent machine machine”. Human life is full of intelligent robots. Human beings have been dealing with and communicating with robots for a long time, from “children” to “lovers”, and then to “nannies”. They have become an indispensable and important part of human life.
The relationship between people becomes the relationship between people and robots, robots and robots, and people. Those robots have emotions and desires, can self-control and self-assembly, become the most human like species in nature, and gradually weaken the sense of human existence.
The complexity of social contradictions and social crises. The progress of science and technology has not eliminated social contradictions, but created new social contradictions. The birth of artificial intelligence has made the society increasingly hostile to robots. The complexity of human beings and the eternity of artificial intelligence are mutually exclusive to some extent. When there is a contradiction between human beings and artificial intelligence, human beings who dominate the world can abandon artificial intelligence, but can the abandoned artificial intelligence be controlled?
Many science fiction movies fantasize about the “wisdom” and “ability” of artificial intelligence to the extreme, and Spielberg’s “artificial intelligence” is no exception. At the end of the film “artificial intelligence”, two thousand years after the mid-21st century, human beings have died out. The only species on earth is advanced artificial intelligence. They dominate the world and human society no longer exists.
3、 Potential threat
In thousands of years of human civilization, we have been used to the social pattern of anthropocentrism. Today, when mankind has experienced two cold winters of artificial intelligence and ushered in the third artificial intelligence spring, when we can vaguely look at the singularity, we find that this communication model with obvious anthropocentrism is shaking with the gradual collapse of human overconfidence.
Our goal is not to deviate from the classics, but to return to the essence of communication. Artificial intelligence as a media technology, when it has consciousness and is infinitely close to human beings, the outbreak of a new social crisis will only be a matter of time. Spielberg gave us a sad or happy ending in artificial intelligence. It looks infinitely “beautiful”. David has a day’s mother.
However, people are deeply trapped in the happy ending created by the director, but they forget that mankind has died at this time. The only trace of human existence on earth is David’s memory, the memory of a robot child designed and manufactured by human beings, which proves that human beings really existed. This is the truth. Artificial intelligence technology is updating and iterating rapidly, and robots are becoming more and more “smart”.
In this world of “survival of the fittest and survival of the fittest”, the infinite “intelligence” of robots has threatened the fate of mankind. In fact, robot safety accidents occurred as early as the early stage of the development of artificial intelligence. In 1978, in a Japanese factory, a cutting robot had an emergency and mistakenly cut a worker as a steel plate.
In 1981, a repairman in another Japanese factory accidentally started a robot for processing gears. The robot regarded the worker as a gear and put it on the processing table of the machine. The worker died instantly. In 1985, after the Soviet chess champion Gudkov won a chess game with a robot chess player, the robot suddenly released a strong current to kill Gudkov.
In 2016, a robot named “xiaopang” in Shenzhen suddenly smashed into the booth glass without any start-up instructions, and finally hurt passers-by. In 2018, at the Amazon warehouse in New Jersey, USA, the robot pierced a pot of anti bear spray, resulting in dozens of workers breathing difficulties, and 24 people were hospitalized.
This series of safety accidents related to artificial intelligence remind us that there are potential safety hazards in artificial intelligence technology from beginning to end. With the continuous rigor of program design and the continuous improvement of robot functions, machine brains gradually tend to human beings, and they gradually tend to be perfect. The social crisis will not be smaller and smaller, and the threat to human beings is far more than that.
When artificial intelligence surpasses human beings and is omnipotent, will it dominate the world? Is mankind really going to perish as in science fiction movies? Socrates put ethics into the discussion of where human beings come from and go, emphasizing the concern for human beings, the pursuit of human life and the shaping of human virtue.
As Aristotle thought, all human activities and technologies have a certain purpose, which is what they regard as good. To achieve these purposes means to achieve happiness, and good or happiness is a realistic activity in line with human virtue. The development of technology serves human life. If the emergence of a technology deviates from this original intention, is not conducive to the development of human society, is not in line with ethics, and needs to be adjusted in time.
In fact, artificial intelligence technology is not a Pandora’s box of “ethics”. On the contrary, it is a magnifying glass on the development of human civilization. Therefore, we can always examine human beings themselves, including many problems in philosophy and ethics. Artificial intelligence technology gives us a good opportunity to examine the existing ethics and ethics. We should keep up with the pace of science and technology, always pursue wisdom and constantly explore a higher realm of human spiritual civilization.