The term smart truck has frequently appeared in everyone’s view in these two years, causing unprecedented concern in the industry, because smart truck will bring new changes to the industry. Car companies have launched smart trucks, the so-called smart trucks, in fact, are more manufacturers for publicity needs, the essence of which is the mass production application of autonomous driving technology. This smart truck is L1 level, this smart truck is L2 level, some card users will ask: “How is this level of autonomous driving divided? And what functions can each level bring?” We will introduce it for you in detail below.
Automatic driving level is divided in this way
The NHTSA and SAE have some inconsistencies in the classification, designation and definition of autonomous driving, mainly in L4 and L5. The NHTSA divides autonomous driving into 5 levels, while the SAE refines the level 1 and divides it into 6 levels.
The L1 and L2 that we often talk about, the L in front is the abbreviation of Level (level), and the number behind represents the specific autonomous driving level, the higher the number, the higher the autonomous driving level. The next, we will introduce L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, respectively, according to SAE’s division of levels. at present, the division of autonomous driving levels does not distinguish between trucks and cars. Most of the truck companies also divide the self-driving level of their truck products according to this standard.
Two dimensions of autonomous driving levels
In order to introduce more clearly, I specially consulted professionals, and the current classification of autonomous driving in the industry is mainly based on two dimensions.
1、Lateral and vertical control of the vehicle
2, the driver’s driving status
The longitudinal control of the vehicle: mainly the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle. The vehicle’s throttle, brake, gear shift and other operations are automatically controlled by the system.
The vehicle’s lateral control: lateral control mainly refers to the vehicle’s steering control. Lane keeping, automatic lane changing and turning belong to the lateral control of the vehicle.
Driver’s driving status: Specifically refers to the driver’s driving involvement in the vehicle. The lower the driver’s driving involvement, the higher the involvement of the system for automatic driving, and the higher the level of automatic driving it represents.
According to this above-mentioned division dimension, we will then introduce the specific various levels.
L0 level, manual driving
Vehicles at this level are operated entirely by the driver, and vehicle operations such as braking, steering, and throttle are completely controlled manually by the driver. Lane departure warning, anti-collision warning and other functions are only warning tips, the next operation still needs to be completed by the driver.
L1 level, assisted driving
The system can partially operate the vehicle, according to the industry, can the vehicle lateral, vertical one of the automatic control will reach the L1 level of autonomous driving.
L1 level self-driving truck, we have a lot of domestic, the current L1 level is mainly based on the longitudinal control of some vehicles. Vehicle forward and deceleration, most of the corresponding adaptive cruise control (ACC) and automatic emergency braking (AEBS) the function. The intelligent truck launched by Heavy Duty last year actually belongs to the L1 level in a strict sense.
In terms of hardware, L1 level vehicles will add user monocular cameras, millimeter wave radar to achieve ACC, AEBS and other functions. These hardware are the basis for achieving L2, or even L5.
L2 level, semi-autonomous driving
L2 level autonomous driving allows the vehicle to operate a number of functions, with the remaining few functions requiring the driver to operate.
In addition to longitudinal vehicle control, there needs to be lateral control of the vehicle, and the technology to achieve lateral autonomous driving is mostly said to be the lane keeping function (LKAS).
The intelligent truck just released by Jiefang a few days ago, according to this level, belongs to the L2 level, compared to the intelligent truck of heavy truck, more lateral control vehicle – lane keeping function.
In terms of hardware, in addition to monocular camera, millimeter wave radar to achieve adaptive cruise control (ACC)/automatic emergency braking (AEBS), lane departure warning (LDWS) and other functions, it is also necessary to add ESP electro-hydraulic steering machine to achieve lane keeping function.
L3 level, conditional autonomous driving
The vehicle can realize the operation of the vast majority of functions, and most situations the vehicle is able to cope with on its own.
Compared to L2, it can greatly reduce the degree of driver supervision of the vehicle. In case of emergency, the driver needs to take over the vehicle at any time. Compared to L2 level vehicles, L3 is able to change lanes and overtake by itself, which will become more intelligent.
L4 level, autonomous driving under specific conditions
This level of vehicles, the degree of self-driving further improved, such as highways, ports and other specific places, the vehicle can complete their own driving. If a traffic accident is suddenly encountered, it may be necessary for the driver to take over for manual driving at this time.
LIDAR will be added to improve the vehicle’s ability to judge road conditions. At the same time, it will also join the car network, which can realize some information interaction between the car and the car, the car and the road, to help improve the ability of autonomous driving.
L5 level, fully automatic driving
At this level, all driving is done by the vehicle itself, no manual operation is needed. By this time, the driver can watch movies, drink tea, and even sleep. In other words, as long as the regulations allow, the truck does not need a driver.
What is the relationship between self-driving, driverless driving?
What is the relationship between automatic driving and driverless driving? I believe that many card users have such doubts. Today I will talk to you about their relationship in general.
The scope of automatic driving is relatively large, it can include unmanned, as well as intelligent driving. According to the technical level, the highest level is driverless, in fact, the ultimate development goal of automatic driving is also to achieve unmanned. Autonomous driving ≠ driverless. Autonomous driving is more of an auxiliary function that assists the driver in driving the vehicle to improve safety and reduce driving intensity, and the driver can take over the vehicle for operation at any time when the vehicle is in motion. Driverless, no driver driving at all, the vehicle can even have no cab, to be precise, the vehicle is a transportation tool at this time.
What is the significance of autonomous driving?
People have mixed feelings about autonomous driving, but most people are very positive about it and say it is a future trend. Although there is still some time before the real autonomous driving, it is not difficult to find that many autonomous driving technologies have already started to be applied, such as ACC and AEBS, which have been talked about more recently, have started to appear on trucks. Take AEBS, when you are fatigued driving, it is likely to be a life-saving feature that can reduce rear-end accidents due to high-speed driving and save many people’s lives.
As we all know, behind every driver is a family, and behind the family is a group of friends and family ….. So, from a safety perspective, autonomous driving is significant. In addition to improving driving safety, autonomous driving technology will affect the transformation of the entire industry. The ultimate goal of autonomous driving is to achieve driverlessness, which can realize the interconnection of cars and vehicles, and the interconnection of cars and roads, which can improve the efficiency of logistics and transportation, reduce road congestion’s, reduce energy consumption of trucks and many other benefits.
For self-driving, many people feel very strange, far away from us, take a closer look, self-driving technology has begun to enter our trucks, some card users have experienced the benefits brought to them by self-driving technology. It can be foreseen that the future of the truck autopilot technology will become higher and higher, not to say that one day, our beloved truck really really become driverless, personal driving truck experience, will become our more precious memories.