Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) is to help the driver in the process of driving system, is the use of installed in the car all kinds of sensors, sensing the environment at any time in the process of the car, collect data, static and dynamic object recognition and tracking, and connecting with the navigation map data for system operation and analysis, thus, allows the rider to perceive the possibility of danger in advance, Effectively increase car driving comfort and safety.
The U.S. Road Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the U.S. government’s top authority for auto safety, has released a map of the vehicle automation phase, and ADAS is not the highest level of full autonomy.
ADAS is assisted driving, the core is environment awareness, while autonomous driving is artificial intelligence, two different things. In other words, it is not accurate to blindly refer to “autonomous driving” without distinguishing between the automation stages of the vehicle, from driver assistance to fully automated systems, in all situations. According to Global Edge Soft, the next generation of ADAS will enable wireless network connectivity to enable vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I or V2X), further driving the adoption of these systems. In short, cars can communicate with each other.
What can an ADAS system include? (Refer to Wikipedia)
1.Traffic Message Channel, TMC
2.Intelligent speed adaptation, ISA
3.Vehicular communication systems
4.Adaptivecruise control, ACC
5.Lane departure Warning system, LDWS
6.Lane change assistance
7.Collision avoidance system
9.Adaptive light control
10.Pedestrian protection system
12.Traffic sign recognition)
13.Blind spot detection)
15.Hill descent control
16.Electric vehicle warning sounds
Early ADA systems became popular in the United States in the early 2000s and included:
1.Cadillac De Vere — NV, 2000
2.2000, Toyota — Dynamic Laser Cruise Control (ACC)
3.2004, Infiniti Infinity FX — Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
4.2006, Lexus LS — Lane Keeping Assist (LKA)
5.2007, Audi — Lane Assist System (LDW)
6.2008, General Motors — Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
Back in the late 1970s, when the first electronic anti-lock brakes appeared, mechanical technology dominated American cars.
Advanced driver assistance systems are one of the fastest growing automotive safety applications in the hope of reducing vehicle accidents and deaths.
In addition to passive safety systems, active safety systems also play an important role in reducing the number of traffic fatalities and vehicle accidents. The ADAS system includes mid – and long-range radar and vision systems. The development of ADAS systems requires state-of-the-art, low-cost RF technology that can be embedded in vehicles to detect and classify external objects.
State-of-the-art radar systems can tell vehicles from pedestrians, walls, and know the location and possible correction path. Extraordinary computing power is needed to make the system efficient, but the cost has to be very low to make it widespread in the market.
The active safety system includes adaptive cruise control (ACC) and collision warning system with automatic steering and braking intervention.
In the collision warning system, a 77 GHz transmitter controlled by a microcontroller emits signals that are reflected from an object in front to the side and rear of the vehicle. These signals are captured by multiple receivers integrated throughout the vehicle.
The radar system uses embedded storage and a high-performance microcontroller that can detect and track objects in the frequency domain, trigger the driver’s warning of an impending collision and activate ESC emergency intervention.
The camera system in ADAS can even display what’s behind or next to the vehicle on screen at night, and can analyze video content for use in automated lane departure warning systems and high/low light headlight controls.
ADAS functions can be divided into two categories: comfort functions and safety functions.
Comfort features are designed to warn the driver by triggering warnings, such as flashing lights, sounds, vibrations and even gentle steering suggestions. The purpose of the safety feature is to take action against the vehicle itself if the driver does not respond to a potentially dangerous situation. Possible measures include brake precharging, seat belt preparation, hood lifting, automatic braking, avoidance steering, etc.
ADAS includes the following key components
Sensors: Kits of ADAS Sensors (such as camcorders, lidar or radar) enhance the perception of the surrounding environment. They connect to the network or cloud and generate real-time, actionable data that powers ADAS. These devices have limited range and bandwidth and should be fused with other sensor data.
Processors: ADAS require good processing speed, so the processor counts proximity and threat level.
Software: When machine learning and ARTIFICIAL intelligence are used in a variety of situations, Software can simplify hardware functions.
Mapping: Use ADAS Mapping capabilities collected through vehicle sensors to store and update geographic and infrastructure information to determine its exact location.
Actuator (Actuators) : Through the electrification of the actuator system, it can interact with the electrical components in the vehicle. ADAS systems can use processors that analyze data from vehicle sensors to enable actuators to execute decisions. (ADAS is still convenient for electric cars.)
How does ADAS work?
Most of the latest models have ADAS built into the original design and have been updated as automakers roll out new models and more features. These systems use multiple data inputs to enable useful security features. Some of these data sources include automotive imaging, which is a series of high-quality sensor systems with 360-degree coverage, 3D object resolution, high visibility in harsh weather and light conditions that can mimic and exceed the capabilities of the human eye.
LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) adds more cameras and sensors for computer vision, converts output to 3D, and is able to identify static and moving objects to increase blind spots or low-light situations. Additional inputs can be obtained from other sources that are not part of the primary vehicle platform, for example, including other vehicles (V2V) or vehicles to infrastructure (V2X). The next generation of ADAS will continue to plug into wireless network connections to provide increased security and value through the use of V2V and V2X data.
Despite the exponential growth in ADAS system innovation, the market is limited in terms of large-scale adoption of the technology. One of the biggest constraints involves scalability and its huge cost. Installing these systems in more factory-built vehicles will cost a lot in terms of compliance, safety standards and so on.
In addition, improving the efficiency and performance of the system comes with a high price tag. Even with the current hurdles, it is hoped that the ADAS market in the Asia-Pacific region will reach $9.69 billion by 2023, with a growth rate of 28.6% between 2018 and 2023. This increase is also due to recent government mandates regarding these driver assistance systems, as well as the relationship between these systems and fewer road accidents. In short, as technology and vehicle engineering have evolved, so have ADAS capabilities.