Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technical science that studies and develops theories, methods, technologies and application systems for simulating, extending and expanding human intelligence. As one of the representatives of the new generation of information technology, artificial intelligence widely applies the theories and methods of computer, mathematics, physics, biology, logic and other disciplines, and hopes to use computing equipment to simulate human thinking and decision-making process.
Since the Dartmouth conference first put forward the concept of “artificial intelligence” in 1956, artificial intelligence has experienced more than 60 years of tortuous development. It has become an important driving force for a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial reform, and has become the focus of competition all over the world. Its development level has also become an important embodiment of the country’s core competitiveness and is having a far-reaching impact on economic development, social progress and international political and economic pattern. In this context, accelerating the development of a new generation of artificial intelligence is a strategic issue related to whether the country can seize the opportunity of a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial change.
Artificial intelligence represents the infinite possibility of future economic development. It is generally believed that artificial intelligence can promote economic growth by improving productivity. At the level of individual labor, artificial intelligence can promote the development of traditional automation into “intelligent automation”, continuously release individual creativity and greatly improve labor productivity;
At the industry production level, artificial intelligence can effectively improve production capacity and capital efficiency, analyze and make control decisions for industries, and can solve a series of problems in some industries, such as low production accuracy, heavy workload, idle equipment, poor safety and so on;
At the macroeconomic level, artificial intelligence will promote the improvement of management efficiency, resource allocation efficiency and social transaction efficiency, promote innovation and improve total factor productivity, deepen the form of division of labor, greatly expand the space for product innovation, shift from improving the efficiency of division of labor specialization to improving the efficiency of division of labor diversification, and expand the possible boundary of production from the perspective of diversity.
Specifically, AI has the following four “technical economic” characteristics:
One is permeability. As a universal, basic and enabling digital technology, artificial intelligence has the potential to integrate with all sectors of economy and society, production and life. This feature widely used in all fields of economy and society is defined as the permeability of universal technology. In the early stage of development, artificial intelligence was mostly applied to simple scenes to solve some abstract conceptual game problems. However, with the further development of technology, artificial intelligence was more and more applied to diversified and comprehensive scenes. The permeability characteristics determine that artificial intelligence has the ability and potential to have a broad and overall impact on economic growth. In the foreseeable future, artificial intelligence will be more fully integrated into production and living activities.
The second is synergy. In the production field, the application of artificial intelligence can improve the matching degree among capital, labor, technology and other factors, and strengthen the coordination among various production links such as upstream technology R & D, midstream project realization and downstream application feedback, so as to improve operation efficiency; In the field of consumption, artificial intelligence can realize the automatic portrait of users’ consumption habits and consumption needs, complete the intelligent matching of personalized needs and professional supply, and further release the consumption potential. Generally speaking, the synergy of artificial intelligence is reflected in the improvement of economic operation efficiency.
Third, substitutability. It should be noted that artificial intelligence can directly replace labor factors. From simple work to complex work, artificial intelligence will continue to play a substitution effect. While accumulating as an independent factor, it can replace other capital factors and labor factors, and its supporting role in economic development will be strengthened.
Fourth, innovation. Production automation can replace some high-intensity and difficult continuous labor, and artificial intelligence causes people’s concern about the employment prospect because it can replace human mental work and creative activities. At present, artificial intelligence has been widely used in scientific research activities such as drug discovery and screening, material identification and simulation, and has been widely given the right to analyze, make decisions and even create innovations in the fields of finance, digital modeling, emergency rescue, music and painting, showing the creative power from outside the human mind that has never been seen in human history. The innovation of artificial intelligence can produce “additional” knowledge and increase the total amount of human wisdom, so as to promote technological progress and improve economic efficiency.
Artificial intelligence not only has the permeability and substitution characteristics of general information and communication technology, but also has the synergy characteristics of cooperating with various economic factors to improve economic efficiency, as well as the innovative characteristics of replacing human mental work. Artificial intelligence with the above characteristics can play an important role in promoting high-quality economic development.
On the one hand, the core industry of artificial intelligence has the effect of expansion and growth. As a highly systematic digital technology, the realization of artificial intelligence application is inseparable from a series of links such as technology R & D, software and hardware development, algorithm model training and specific scenario application, which has spawned a series of industries with a complete industrial chain, and its products and services cover all links from upstream R & D to downstream applications.
It should be noted that one of the ways for AI to promote high-quality economic growth is the expansion and growth effect of AI core industries. Artificial intelligence has a higher degree of integration with production and life applications. It can quickly respond to specific problems and provide application solutions according to different scenarios. The increasing application demand not only keeps the artificial intelligence industry growing at a high speed, but also promotes the growth of the basic information technology industry. The expansion and growth of artificial intelligence core industry is in line with the direction of industrial structure optimization and upgrading, and its supporting role for the economy is also continuously strengthened.
On the other hand, artificial intelligence can promote the integrated development of different industries through empowerment. Artificial intelligence is permeable, alternative, collaborative and innovative. It can intelligently transform existing industries by outputting intelligent facilities and intelligent schemes, realize the integrated development of digital economy and real economy, and promote high-quality economic development by improving quality and efficiency.
In the field of agriculture, artificial intelligence is integrated into agricultural production, logistics and other links to realize unmanned numerical control of agricultural production, production decision-making based on data analysis, accurate execution of intelligent agricultural robots, etc; In the industrial field, AI provides accurate upgrading of production services based on the industrial characteristics of different industrial industries, which can not only realize the discovery and removal of redundant assets, the optimization and adjustment of mismatched assets and the reactivation of idle assets at the production end, promote the improvement of production efficiency, but also realize rapid response, accurate matching and personalized customization to user needs at the consumer end, Fully release the potential of the consumer side; In the field of service industry, artificial intelligence has long been applied in various fields such as finance, tourism, logistics, culture and sports, among which the research and practice in the field of finance are relatively rich.
Nowadays, artificial intelligence is being more and more used in supply chain, transportation and logistics, industrial interconnection and other fields. It has gradually built a diversified industry technical service and solution platform in industries such as industry, agriculture, finance and public security to provide relatively general industry application services.
At the same time, AI can also “activate” potential related industries. As a subversive technology, artificial intelligence will play an important driving role in potentially related industries in the economic system, that is, it will produce an “activation effect” and bring creative growth. Many industries originally unrelated to digital technology have been “activated” and ushered in a new round of development with the help of product output, service output, technology output, paradigm output and business model innovation of artificial intelligence industry. In the foreseeable future, this “activation effect” will more and more stimulate various potentially related industries in the economy and society, so as to achieve efficient, intensive, innovative and green high-quality growth.