The predecessor of intelligent transportation is intelligent transportation system (ITS), which was put forward by the United States in the early 1990s. In 2009, IBM put forward the concept of intelligent transportation. Intelligent transportation integrates high-tech IT technologies such as Internet of things, cloud computing, big data and mobile Internet on the basis of intelligent transportation, collects traffic information through high-tech, and provides traffic information services under real-time traffic data.
A large number of data processing technologies such as data model and data mining are used to realize the systematicness and real-time of intelligent transportation, the interaction of information exchange and the universality of services.
Intelligent transportation system mainly solves the application requirements in four aspects.
Real time traffic monitoring. Know where the traffic accident happened, where the traffic is crowded and which road is the most unblocked, and provide it to drivers and traffic management personnel at the fastest speed;
Public vehicle management. Realize two-way communication between drivers and dispatching management center to improve the operation efficiency of commercial vehicles, buses and taxis;
Travel information services. Provide various comprehensive traffic information to travelers in time through multi-media and multi terminals;
Vehicle auxiliary control. Using real-time data to assist the driver or replace the driver’s autopilot.
Data is the foundation and lifeblood of intelligent transportation. Any of the above applications are based on the real-time acquisition and analysis of massive data. Location information, traffic flow, speed, occupancy, queue length, travel time and interval speed are the most important traffic data.
The big data platform of the Internet of things not only collects and stores massive traffic data, but also deeply excavates the associated user information and location information to find the useful value hidden in the data. For example, the user behavior trajectory model organized by user ID and timeline actually records the user’s activities in the real world and reflects the individual’s intention, preferences and behavior patterns to a certain extent. Mastering these is very helpful for the intelligent transportation system to provide personalized travel information push service.
From intelligent transportation to intelligent transportation.
At the end of last century, with the rapid development of social economy and science and technology, the level of urbanization was higher and higher, and the number of motor vehicles increased rapidly. Traffic congestion, traffic accident rescue, traffic management, environmental pollution, energy shortage and other problems have become common problems faced by countries all over the world. Both developed and developing countries are suffering from these problems without exception. Under this background, a real-time, accurate and efficient integrated transportation and management system, namely intelligent transportation system, was born.
Intelligent transportation system integrates people, vehicles and roads. In the system, information technology, data communication transmission technology, electronic sensing technology, satellite navigation and positioning technology, electronic control technology, computer processing technology and traffic engineering technology are used, and a series of technologies are effectively integrated and applied to the whole traffic management system, so as to make people, vehicles and roads closely cooperate, achieve harmony and unity and give play to synergy, It greatly improves the transportation efficiency, ensures the traffic safety, improves the transportation environment and improves the energy utilization efficiency.
“People” in intelligent transportation system refers to all people related to transportation system, including traffic managers, operators and participants; “Vehicle” includes vehicles of various modes of transportation; “Road” includes roads and routes of various modes of transportation. “Intelligence” is the most fundamental feature that distinguishes its from traditional transportation systems.
The development of electronic information technology and the arrival of the big data era of “data is king” have brought significant changes to the development of intelligent transportation. The development and application of Internet of things, cloud computing, big data, mobile Internet and other technologies in the transportation field not only inject new technical connotation into intelligent transportation, but also have a great impact on the development and concept of intelligent transportation system. With the in-depth research and application of big data technology, intelligent transportation will provide the public with a more agile, efficient, green and safe travel environment and create a better life in the aspects of traffic operation management optimization and intelligent services for vehicles and travelers.